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all | FON Glossary

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Bring awareness to the environmental crisis facing India, and its economic and social  impact on rural and farming communities

Promote and support solutions to rural hunger and poverty in India via sustainable organic farming and biodiversity conservation and to protect and preserve indigenous knowledge.

Glossary of terms used on this site

There are 41 entries in this glossary.
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Term Definition
Mixed Cropping

When a number of crops are grown and sown together at the same time on a piece of land it is called mixed cropping. There are a number of patterns of mixed cropping

Aliases (separate with |): Mixed Cropping

This is characterized by the cultivation of a single variety of crop in the same land in each successive planting year. HYV, hybrid and GM sees are palnted using this cropping system.


Monoculture is the cultivation of one kind of plant in a particular area. Monoculture is not natural; in nature, many different plants grow together, taking some nutrients from the soil, water and air, and giving others back. This helps keep the earth in balance. When we cultivate only one type of plant, it takes up all of some nutrients, but leaves others in excess. This makes the earth unbalanced. Monocultures are also more vulnerable to pests and diseases.

Aliases (separate with |): Monocultures

A monopoly is the exclusive possession and control of something. In the political and economic system of capitalism, a person or company can have exclusive possession and control of a supply or trade in a particular commodity or service.

Aliases (separate with |): Monopoly

Monsanto is a US-based multinational biotechnology corporation. It is the leading producer of genetically engineered seed and provides the technology in 90% of the world’s genetically engineered seeds.

Aliases (separate with |): Monsanto
Multinational Corporations (MNCs)

Multinational Corporations are corporations or enterprises that deliver services in more than one country. Many impose a free trade economic system on the Third World to make these countries unable to build their own economy. The 200 richest corporations have more money than almost all the countries of the world combined.

Aliases (separate with |): Multinational Corporations (MNCs)
Natural resources

Natural resources are naturally occurring materials or substances such as minerals, forests, water and fertile land that some people and companies use for economic gain. Natural resources can be appreciated for the instrumental or intrinsic value.

Aliases (separate with |): Natural resources

If something is organic, it is or was living, or part of living matter.

Aliases (separate with |): Organic
Relay Cropping

in relay cropping the successive crop is sown before the harvesting or removal of the previous crop. By doing this time can be saved between two croppings. This can be practiced for annual, biennial and perennial crops.

Aliases (separate with |): Relay Cropping
Rotational Cropping

Growing crops one after another on a piece of land is called crop rotation. This can be done by growing the same crop or different crops. The crops may be annual or perennial. Annual crops are rotated according to climatic and seasonal changes. Rotatons such as rice- whear and maize- wheat- mung are examples of annual crop rotations with seasonal crops. Papaya – Pineapple- sugarcane, are an example of rotating biennial crops and rubber followed by coffee, or orange followed by guava are examples of perennial crops.

Aliases (separate with |): Rotational Cropping

• A process which involves growing tiny pieces of plant material- tissue or isolated cells- in an artificial medium that keeps them alive • Special hormones like hormones, etc. help them to develop into complete plants • These baby plants are identical to the parent plant and to each other • Tissue culture methods more than halve the time taken by traditional plant breeding methods as practiced by farmers over centuries.

Aliases (separate with |): CELL CULTURE:|TISSUE
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